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Ari Burnu Cemetery
Chunuk Bair Memorial
Kabatepe War Museum
Lone Pine Memorial
Quinns Post Cemetery
Shrapnel Valley Cemetery
The Nek Cemetery
57th Regiment Memorial
Unknown Soldier Memorial
Please click here for a detailed road map of Turkey 9999px to 4644px 9,03 MB
Some Info About Turkey:
Local time is equal to GMT +2 hours.
Same time zone all over the country.
It is standard; 220 V all over Turkey.
Weights and Measures:
The Metric & Kilo system is used.
Postal Services & Telecommunications:
Turkey's postal services are comparatively organized and efficient. All
post offices bear the distinctive yellow PTT sign (Post, Telephone,
Telegrams). Larger and central offices are open from 08:00 - 24:00
All cities are linked by an efficient direct dialling system. Public
telephones have two different systems. Some of them work with cards and
some with tokens. They are both sold and at PTT's. Tokens are called
"jeton" in Turkish. Small jetons are only enough for local
calls. Phone cards are in 3 different sizes and can be used more than once
depending on the capacity of the card. All over Turkey, phone numbers
consist of two sections; area code (3 digits) and the number itself (7
digits). During weekdays from 18:00 to 06:00 and on weekends calls are
comparatively cheaper than the normal times as one can speak longer with
the same amount of phone credit. The telephone system in Turkey is good.
The total number of the telephone lines is 7.5 million. In other words the
ratio is 7.5 persons Per telephone (1998). With this number Turkey lies
seventh in Europe and fourteenth in the world.
The unit of currency is the Turkish Lira (TL). Coins are 50.000; 100.000;
250.000 and bank notes are 250.000; 500.000; 1.000.000; 5.000.000;
Too money zeros can complicate life but are inevitable in a country where
the annual inflation rate is about 70-100%. The cancellation of these many
zeros is wondered about and suggested frequently by foreigners but, unless
the inflation rate is reduced, it will have little effect and it cannot be
repeated annually. Considering the possible psychological effects it has
been discussed and in a very short time it will be implemented.
Banks and ATM's:
Turkey boasts many banking companies and branches can be found everywhere.
The big retail banks all have ATMs, some of which give cash advances
against foreign credit cards. It should be noted that most ATM entry codes
use numbers rather than letters / passwords.
Banks will exchange foreign currency and travellers checks with your
passport as proof of identity. Commissions are charged at between 1% and
3% per transaction. Exchange rates change daily and can be checked in the
press. Bank are usually open between 09:30 - 12:00 and 13:30 - 17:00 on
weekdays. On saturdays and sundays they are closed.
"Doviz" or exchange offices offer a fast service outside normal
banking hours and at better rates than banks or hotels. They do not charge
commissions and only change foreign cash currency. Passports are not
It should be noted that credit card commissions charged by the various
credit card companies might sometimes be added to client's
bill-particularly if shopping in very touristic places. Also, with the
rate of inflation affecting the daily exchange rate, the international
rate used by the credit card company's banking agents may differ to that
used by the vendor; clients mat win or loose small amounts either way.
Food & Drinks:
Turkish Cuisine is considered to be among the best in the world. So many
civilizations, so many styles and the abundant food supply contribute to
today's cuisine. "Afiyet Olsun" is an expression used to wish
that a meal is enjoyed. Unlike many other languages it is used both before
and after the meal. When anybody wants to express appreciation about food
prepared by somebody else, he says "Elinize Saglik" which means
"May God give health to your hands". When proposing a toast, the
expression "Serefe!" is used which literally means "To
This kind of restaurant is typically Turkish and offers home cooking style
food. From a selection of meals, it is possible to go to the window and
choose whatever you like. Guvec is any kind of meat prepared in a
casserole. Bulgur Pilavi is cooked crushed wheat. Dolma is stuffed
vegetables, usually grape leaves, peppers, eggplants, cabbage leaves or
mussels filled with rice, minced meat and raisins. Meatballs, vegetables
or liver are among traditional Turkish food.
This is the place where kebaps are sold. Kebap is a roast, broiled or
grilled meat prepared in many different ways each of them called by adding
a word to kebap; doner kebap, sis kebap, patlican kebap, etc. Doner kebap
is lamp meat roasted on a revolving spit. Sis kebap is cubes of meat on
skewers. Kofte are grilled or fried meatballs.
Farinaceous Food Restaurants:
These differ from Italian pizza to Turkish farinaceous foods such as
Borekci, Pideci, Lahmacuncu, Mantici, etc. Borek is a flaky pastry filled
with cheese, eggs, vegetables, or minced meat, then fried or baked.
Gozleme is a thin dough filled with cheese and parsley and baked on thin
iron plate placed in wood or charcoal fire. Pide is a thick dough base
filled or covered with any combination of meat, cheese, eggs, etc. It is
quite similar to pizza but served with butter and grated cheese. Lahmacun
is a thin round dough base covered with a spicy mixture of minced lamb
meat, onions, tomatoes and parsley. Manti is a kind of pasta filled with
minced lamb meat and served with yoghurt and garlic.
In the times before there was fast food, people went to these restaurants
to eat tripe or chicken soup either for breakfast or after heavy nights of
drinking. These places also sell a special food: Kokorec, roast and
grilled lamb intestines, also sold in push carts by peddlers in the
Meyhane and Fish Restaurants:
These restaurants are generally for proper dinner meals. First, a large
variety of soguk (cold) meze, (hors d'oeuvres) will be offered on a big
tray among which you can choose a few, then you should sample a few sicak
(hot) meze before the main dish. The main dish is is either fish or meat.
After having desserts or fruit, it is time to drink a cup of Turkish
White cheese, olives, lakerda (salted bonito), dolma (stuffed vegetables),
cacik (chopped cucumbers with yoghurt and garlic), piyaz (beans salad),
Arnavut cigeri (spiced liver), fava (bean paste), imam bayildi (stuffed
eggplant), pilaki (white beans), patlican kizartma (fried eggplant), and
Fried mussels or squid, various kinds of borek, fried potatoes, etc.
This is place where they sell different kinds of sweets. There are many of
them like Baklavaci, Muhallebici, Dondurmaci, Helvaci, etc.
Baklava is thin layers of flaky pastry stuffed with almond paste, walnuts
or pistachio nuts in syrup. Its name comes from the shape in which it is
cut; lozenge-shapes. Kaymak is thick clotted cream eaten with most sweets
as well as on its own with honey or jam. Asure (Noah's pudding) is made
from numerous types of dried fruits and pulses. Sutlac is rice pudding.
Kadayif is shredded wheat in syrup. Kestane sekeri is glace chestnuts.
They are generally canned or kept in glass jars in syrup. It is common in
Bursa. Lokum (Turkish Delight) is cubes of jelly like or gummy confection
flavoured with flour fruit essences and dusted with powdered sugar.
Pismaniye is a sweet-meat made of sugar, flour and butter which resembles
flax fibres. Tahin-Pekmez is a mixture of both Tahin, sesame oil and
Pekmez, molasses or treacle (heavy syrup obtained from grapes). Helva is a
flaky confection of crushed sesame seeds in a base of syrup. Dondurma
means ice cream.
Turkish Coffee is a ritual rather than a drink. Although coffee is not
grown in Turkey, it is called Turkish coffee because it was introduced to
the western world by Turks during the Siege of Vienna in the 16C. It is
made by mixing an extremely ground coffee with water and sugar. According
to your taste, you should let the waiter know in advance how much sugar
you want in it: sade (without sugar), az sekerli (a little sugar), orta
(medium sugar), or sekerli (with much sugar).
Turkish coffee is drunk in small sips after you've rinsed your
mouth with a little water which comes in a glass together with the coffee.
While drinking you should leave the coffee grounds at the bottom of the
cup. Turkish coffee is drunk any time especially after meals but
definitely not at breakfast. It is believed that after a heavy meal, one
should either drink a cup of coffee or take a 40-step walk for digestion.
is much more common. Especially at breakfast, but is also drunk anytime
from small glasses and stirred with tiny spoons. Boza is a fermented and
sweetened drink made from corn or wheat. Salep is a boiled milk flavoured
with orchis plant.
is a refreshing tangy drink of yoghurt, water and salt whipped together.
Raki (lion's milk) is the national drink; a 90-proof
aniseed-flavoured alcohol. To drink Raki properly, one needs two long and
narrow glasses. One of the glasses changes its colour from a clear liquid
to a milky-white when it is filled with half Raki and half water. The
other is for just plain water. The aim is to keep the levels of the two
glasses more or less the same. Raki is generally a drink that goes with a
good meal. It is drunk cold, mostly with ice and requires some sort of
food, the best accompaniment being some meze. The average number of
glasses for one person is between 2-4.
There is a good variety of Turkish wine. They are comparatively reasonable
in price and of good quality. Some selections are Kavaklidere Yakut (red),
Selection (red), Cankaya (white) and Muscat (white), Doluca Moskado
(white) and Villa Doluca (both red and white).
Although water is considered safe to drink in most places in Turkey,
chlorination and the different mineral contents of the tap water,
particularly in the larger cities and tourist resorts, can sometimes cause
problems for the visitor. It is therefore advisable to drink bottled water
or mineral water as a safeguard. Local people in major touristic cities,
especially in Istanbul, do not drink water from the tap. In fact, there
are drinking water stations similar in organization to gas stations, where
the locals go to "fill up" their water storage containers.
"Either poor or penurious you fell, light a cigarette after each
Turkey has the fourth place in the world with 22 million active and 22
million passive smokers. Unfortunately, people do not seem to care much
for non-smokers. Recently however, there has been a tendency to prohibit
people smoking in public places but this may take more time to gain
The illegal possession, sale or use of drugs such as hashish, heroin and
cocaine, is strictly forbidden by Turkish Law.
Baths and Toilets:
Water has always been abundant enough to become part of the culture.
Therefore, people of Anatolia have gotten used to running water. They
always prefer washing themselves in running water (shower or Turkish bath)
rather than sitting in bathtubs. If they have a bath, they would take a
shower afterwards. Washing faces is the same; they would to it under
running water rather than in a washbasin filled with water. Toilets may be
oriental or western. They have separate sections for men and women. Near
each mosque there are usually public toilets. Small water pipes coming
from the back of the toilets are for water to cleanse with providing a
simplified bidet. Toilet paper is used just for drying. Therefore, since
paper is not thought to be absolutely necessary, you might not find enough
in all public facilities. Public toilets are always better in hotels and
restaurants. On highways, toilets may be quite primitive. In most places
both men and women have to pay to use public facilities.
Foreign newspapers are available one day after publication and only in big
cities. Turkish Daily News is a good paper to keep up with daily events in
Turkey. Security Areas Photography is not permitted in certain places;
docks, airports, military establishments and frontier areas, etc. Check
for signs or ask for advice if uncertain.
From time to time genuine antiquities as well as imitations are offered
for sale. Under no circumstance should these be purchased. The sale,
purchase and possession are strictly controlled by Turkish Law and
punishments are severe.
For instance, to take a used carpet or a piece of copper out of the
country, one has to get approval from the directorate of an authorized
Shops & Shopping:
Shops are usually open between 8:30 - 19:30 and normally closed on Sunday.
Turkey, as a result of its geographical location, is a treasure-house of
hand-made products. These range from carpets and kilims, to gold and
silver jewellery, ceramics, leather and suede clothing, orgaments
fashioned from alabaster, onyx, copper, and meerschaum.
When purchasing carpets, jewellery or leather products, it is advisable to
consult your guide or do your shopping at a reputable store rather than in
the street from vendors.
A carpet is more a work of art than an article which people step on for
70% of the tourists coming to Turkey return to their homes with carpets
because Turkey is a treasure-house of carpets. To understand how valuable
Turkish carpets are, it is better to go back to their origin. For a nomad
who lived in a tent, home was a simple place; a combination of walls, roof
and floor. The floor was not usually an elaborate structure, just a simple
carpet laid directly onto the earth. The carpet was a bug-excluder, soil
leveller, temperature controller and comfort provider all in one. The
texture of the material beneath one's feet was sensual proof that this was
home and not the wild. As for the history of the carpet, various fragments
exist from the 5-6C AD, but it is only from the Seljuk period in Anatolia
that many more pieces have survived.
during his journey thought Selcuk lands towards the end of the 13. BC
reported that the best and finest carpets were produced in Konya.
Since a carpet is more of a work of art, the deeper meanings of each
design cannot be neglected. A carpet can be likened to a poem; neither can
tolerate any extra element which does not contribute its wholeness and
value. Therefore, just like in a poem, each pattern of a carpet is chosen
for its beauty and motifs are carefully arranged to form rhymes.
Turkish carpets carry a wide range of symbols. For many centuries,
Anatolian women have expressing their wishes, fears, interests, fidelity
and love thought the artistic medium of carpets. Even so, there are
typical repeated motifs changing from region to region; geometric designs,
tree of life, the central medallion design, the prayer niches in prayer
Turkish carpets are made of silk, wool or cotton. A silk pile gives a
carpet the great brilliance. Cotton-warped carpets almost always have a
more rigid and mechanical appearance than wool-warped. Yarns have been
used in their natural colours or coloured with dyes extracted from
flowers, roots and insects.
made on vertical looms strung with 3 to 24 warp (vertical) threads Per cm
(8 to 60 Per in) of width. Working from bottom to top, the carpet maker
either weaves the rug with a flat surface or knots it for a pile texture.
Pile rugs use 5-7.5 cm / 2-3 in lengths of yarn tied in Turkish (Gordes)
or Persian (Sehna) knots with rows of horizontal weft yarn laced over and
under the vertical warp threads for strength. After the carpet is
completely knotted, its pile is sheared and the warp threads at each end
are tied into a fringe. The finer the yarn and the closer the warp threads
are strung together, the denser the weave and, usually, the finer the
quality. The best-known flat-woven rug is the kilim which is lighter in
weight and less bulky than pile rugs. It has a plain weave made by
shooting the weft yarn over and under the warp threads in one row, then
alternating the weft in the next row. The sumak type is woven in a
herringbone pattern by wrapping a continuous weft around pairs of warp
Taking a tour of a carpet production centre is highly recommended in order
to have firsthand experience of this art and to see a full range of the
different designs exhibited.
Leather processing is a traditional handicraft in Turkey and was
developed greatly during the Ottoman period. Istanbul's traditional
leather manufacturing industry was concentrated in the district of
Kazlicesme, where Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror had 360 tannery shops built
to be rented out to leather craftsmen. Over the next 500 years Kazlicesme
became a notorious eyesore which could be smelt long before it came into
sight and the hundreds of small manufacturers have now been moved to a
spacious modern industrial estate in Pendik.
Although it is a big industry, leather-wear is still very dependent on
personal appeal and touch. It is also risky, time-consuming, laborious and
therefore costly. It takes about 45 days to transform a skin into leather
ready for drying and nearly 60 days from skinning to the finished garment.
Also the volume of livestock in Turkey is not increasing at a sufficiently
high rate to keep up with the industry's demand. Despite all these
difficulties, the leather sector comes after textiles in terms of export
figures. The principal markets for Turkish leather goods today are the
European Union countries led by Germany and then France. When purchasing
leather goods, one should be aware of the very wide range of products;
different animal skins, baby lamb, lamb, suede, nubuk, pelluria, etc. and
their differing qualities and prices.
INTER-CITY and INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORTATION
Together with some private airlines, Turkish Airlines (THY) has a domestic
flights network covering seventeen Turkish airports, the first five of
which are also international:
Istanbul, Izmir, Ankara, Dalaman, Antakya, Adana, Bursa, Denizli, Kayseri,
Samsun, Erzurum, Erzincan, Malatya, Diyarbakir, Urfa, Elazig, Kars and
Van. While Ankara is the major junction of the domestic air routes,
Istanbul is the busiest airport and the principal terminus of
international lines. Domestic fares are quite reasonable, between 50 to
100 US Dollars one way to each destination. Turkish Airlines has one of
the newest fleets of aircraft and is among the youngest airlines in the
world. THY has a capacity of 67 airplanes and 10.500 seats (1994).
As a country surrounded by sea on three sides Turkey should have been
using much more sea transportation. Except for a few routes sea
transportation is not very common. Turkish Maritime Lines is operating
some routes from Istanbul to the Black Sea, Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea and
the Mediterranean Sea.
Turkey's railway system extends approximately 10,200 km = 6,340 miles of
which 2,300 km = 1,430 miles is within the framework of the International
Main Railways European Charter and the Trans-European Railways (TER).
Turkish Railways employ 55,000 workers and the General Directorate
replaces 300-500 km / 185-310 miles of track each year. There are 58
steam, 554 diesel and 58 eletric locomotives in operation. 12% of the
railways work on electricity and the remaining 88% are diesel. The number
of passengers travelling by train Per year is around 150 million, the
amount of freight transported is 17 million tons.
Except for the route between Ankara and Istanbul and few other routes
extending to the eastern part of Turkey which provide comfort under severe
climatic conditions, travelling by train is not usually preferred, because
buses provide faster, cheaper and more comfortable services.
With a network of 368,677 km = 229,000 miles (1992) of roads, Turkey has
excellent bus services. Many of the luxurious buses are manufactured in
Turkey, therefore the number of buses is comparatively high. The ratio is
25 people per one one public vehicle.
Because of the big competition among the private bus companies, the number
of services is high. In some destinations, services are as frequent as the
airlines with cafe, bar and restaurant facilities on board. The fares are
around 10 to 20 US Dollars to each destination.
Apart from public buses, trains and trams the most common means of
transportation are taxis, ferry boats (Istanbul and Izmir) sea buses
(Istanbul) and dolmus.
Dolmus (literally full of passengers) is a kind of shared taxi which,
sometimes takes the form of a large car, a station wagon, a regular taxi
or a minibus. It follows a specific fixed route. Passengers pay according
to the distance travelled and can get in and out whenever and wherever
they want to by informing the driver. It is a very practical means of
transport and much cheaper than a taxi. The dolmus fares are determined by
municipalities according to distances.
Taxis are numerous all over Turkey and are recognizable by their yellow
colour and lighted "taxi" signs on top. Each taxi is metered and
there are two different rates. After midnight (24:00) till morning (06:00)
"GECE" will cost 50% more than the daytime "GUNDUZ"
fare. Additional expenses like ferryboat or bridge crossing fees extra to
passengers. Tipping is not necessary, however leaving the change or
rounding up the fare is customary.
Ferry Boats Istanbul and Izmir:
The busy city of Istanbul sits on the shores of Europe and Asia. Many of
the inhabitants live on one continent but work, study or socialize on the
other. Apart from the two bridges on the Bosphorus, ferry boats are the
only means to connect the two continents and are therefore vital. It is
different in Izmir where ferry boats provide an easy option with which to
cross the bay of Izmir. The ferry service is reliable and peaceful
operating throughout the day and until midnight.